Monday, November 30, 2009

Obama Turning Republican

OK so now our prez is going off the wall and becoming a Republican – you know the type … war at any cost.

We are going t0 have a major troop build up in Afghanistan – why?

The Republicans have issued the call for a Victory  in Afghanistan pledge from all its members.  Of course, nobody has any idea how to define “VICTORY” – so how the hell would anyone know when it has been achieved?

Think about it.  How would YOU define victory?  Stop terrorists?  No feasible – they are everywhere but Afghanistan.  Where are the suicide bombers?  Where are they killing people?  Who are they killing?  Certainly they haven’t attacked us in recent years – but they have killed Muslims  in Islamic nations.  Yet where are the Islamic armies?  Has any Islamic nation come forward to stop terrorists?  Or are they funding them to kill their own people, and their fellow religionists in neighboring nations?

Yep … more troops into a nation run by the Taliban … so the Taliban can continue to oppress the people of that nation and the people can blame the USA for allowing it to happen.  OR … pull troops out and get blamed for the Taliban taking over the killing and returning tom power.  NO WIN for USA … hence NO VICTORY POSSIBLE.


On the other hand, it is a good jobs program – if handled correctly.  And the demographic reality is, and has been, that, as of this year and for the next five years, we will need all the job programs we can get.  Then we will still have another fifteen years before stability is reestablished.   It’s call the baby boom retirement years – after decades of low birthrates and skimping on education to enrich the Ponzi scam types who own the Republican Party.

OK, so there is a practical basis for a troop buildup … it will pump money into the support sectors of the economy without killing too many of our children and grandchildren.

Hey DNA SPREAD THEORY – keep enough troops in Afghanistan, for a long enough time, and we will introduce a lot of not Islamic DNA into their gene pool … we did it in Vietnam, Germany, and Japan …


Enjoy the war.

Tuesday, September 15, 2009


Reading Jordans (551CE) yields this:
"There is a great island situated in the surge of the northern Ocean, Scandza by name, in the shape of a juniper leaf with bulging sides that taper down to a point at a long end."

"In the northern part of the island the race of the Adogit live, who are said to have continual light in midsummer for forty days and nights, and who likewise have no clear light in the winter season for the same number of days and nights."

"All these live like wild animals in rocks hewn out like castles. And there are beyond these the Ostrogoths, Raumarici, Aeragnaricii, and the most gentle Finns, milder than all the inhabitants of Scandza."

"Now from this island of Scandza, as from a hive of races or a womb of nations, the Goths are said to have come forth long ago under their king, Berig by name."

So we have it. The Goth, or Ostrogoth, originated in Scandinavia near modern Finland. We can omit the description of their trip to the Black Sea, creation of Visigoth, and the Visigoth migration to France & Spain -- where, in France, they are conquered by the Franks.

Our question is one of DNA. Were the Goth/Visigoth Hg-R1b? That would explain the Hg-R1b dominance in Spain. The question becomes: 'What Hg were the Franks who conquered them in France?'

The logic is interesting ... backtrack from Spain to Scandinavia via the Black Sea and Hg-R1b is Viking four hundred years before the Vikings emerged. Based upon their location and the land route to Belarus and Slavic territory, the Finns would probably have been Hg-R1a. Curiously, their description comports well with that of the Scythian approach to combat. There is also the possibility that the Goths came down as two tribes ... two family groups ... one R1a the other R1b and the R1b family headed west to become the Visigoth.

To apply DNA Spread Theory, we have need of grave DNA from 400CE ...

Tuesday, August 18, 2009

Thoughts on Hg-G

Hg-G was also found at Ergolding. It's origins and regional associations connect it with the Black Sea and Caucasus regions.

Hypothetical: What if, in that time period, the Bavarian nobility were Hg-G?

The real query goes to the Hg of Garibald I of Bavaria ... he ties back (over 100 years) to Duke THEODON I of Bavaria.

More on Ergolding

It appears (from Isotopic examination) that the three R1b individuals were raised in the region of Ravensburg. The probable origin point would have been Wolfegg Castle.

That said, The R1b belongs to the Frankish Kings -- France & Normandy -- and have no business being there. Again, that said, the Bavarian s were reinforced by Frankish soldiers during the reign of Duke Garibald I of Bavaria (540CE). He was the second husband of Waldrada -- the widow of the Frankish/Merovingian king Theudebald.

Did Waldrada & Theudebald have a son who traveled with her from the Merovigian Court to Bavaria? If so, that sons could have been ancestor to the three men found at Ergolding. This would explain both their apparent status and their Frankish R1b DNA.

Theudebald died in 555CE. The son would have been born after 531 and before 555CE -- allowing for failure to gain throne upon his father's death, he was probably born between 550 and 555 CE. His son would have been born c.580, his grandson 610CE and the great-grandsons found at Ergolding would have been born around 635/40 CE.

The alternative is that the Ergolding remains were Frankish Troops -- based on their armor and the fact their graves were not vandalized, they were important officers -- thus nobles.

At this point, the issue is one of paper trail ... whose children go from the region around Normandy to Bravaria?

Monday, August 17, 2009

Latest on Ergolding

Shawn Sinclair (Hidden History Hour) contacted the author of the Ergolding papaer and discovered a colleague had, in fact, done the isotopic analysis to confirm the three men -- dna indicated to be two brothers and cousin -- were raised in the same geographic location.

No doubt they were close family.

Now Shawn is tracking down that location; we expect it will procide information as to the Keep or Castle where they were raised - a fact which will reveal the specific nobility to whom they were related. (We know they were not peasant or serfs. Had they been they would not have had access to, or been buried with, their armor.)

It might not seem like much - but for that R1b line it is a major find which could lead to far reaching revelations regarding the period in which Islam was first emerging and the Christian Empires were dividing between East and West.

Sunday, August 9, 2009

Another Day, Another Bolg Radio podcast

This makes the second, with a third possible Blog Radio Podcast on Shawn Sinclair's "Hidden History Hour" podcast:

We did not reach the point of importance to Shawn and the Sinclair line -- that they are Hg-Rib, Viking, and Frankish troops of antiquity.

We have great antiquity bestowed by the power and luck of the Hg-R1a search for Wisdom, Knowledge and Understanding. The great antiquity of the quest for the gnostic, the quest for eternal knowledge, then power of the Aryas which the underlings of ignorance have long claimed as their own -- but which is never theirs.

Pity the ignorant. They shall argue their own case for oblivion.

Love and trust. Kindness to all. But when that kindness is rebuked. DESTRUCTION! It is the Scythian way. It is the Way of the Brahman and Buddhist. It is the way of the Biblical Christ in the texts before 70CE.

It is the ancient "magic" of justice to those for whom justice is denied.

Religion! READ YOUR TEXT! Read of the heart the love the devotion to saving the innocent. Read the Koran and take it to heart -- understand that the Taliban, Al Qaeda, Hamas and all those who use the Koran for Jihad are heretics -- belong to the evil forces destined to die lonely deaths.

Random thoughts emerge from then studty nand understanding of how it all camne to be and what our goal realy is.

Consider a random pattern linked to a linear progression in time and space. Consider a Random pattern and define it as perfect intent masked by the apparent radom nature of events. CONSIDER. THINK. USE YOUR MIND and ingnor the mindless emotionality derived from rhetoric and irrationality.

Christ is Herakless.

Paul set a trap -- Law or faith and any part of the law requires it all ... Greeks and Jews gain salvation ... Jews because they adhere to the law, Greeks because they follow Herakles -- the deity that is born of God and woman and who, when killed, rose to be a deity. All others are too ignorant to understand and so are cursed by Paul.

Wednesday, July 29, 2009

More on Ergolding

This map shows the area associated with the R1b markers identified among the 670CE remains at Ergolding, Bavaria, Germany:

Checking the history reveals, around 830CE, this region was occupied by the Dames. This would agree with, and explain a match at the corrseponding latitude on the continent. This R1b is fringe Danish -- fringe Viking.

Therefore, DNA Spread Theory reveals that R1b entered the culture we know as Viking prior to the Danish Viking entering England.

By extension, If Haplogroups R1a and I were in Norway, and R1b is continental European -- with shared trade between Norway and Denmark during the pre-Christian and early Christian eras -- an amalgam of the two peoples would have formed under the umbrella of a common trade culture.

We therefore have a basis for the existence of the three haplogroups within the Viking clans. Those who we refer to as "Viking" emerged from an amalgam which created the unified culture which emerged from the seamen in Denmark. These than invaded England to form the district defined as DANELAW ( -- of which "East Anglia" ( the eastern most region.

Obviously, Spread Theory requires additional regional DNA from antiquity. Research -- such as National Geographic's Genographic Project -- which identify genetic components among modern populations, tell us where the bulk of a haplogroup has taken root and expanded. These studies do not identify any regional origin. We can make the argument for people remaining within 25 miles of their birthplace. However, we know there are major population shifts. Consider the Thirty Years War: Major populations moved because of warfare. Plagues decimate, or erase, whole genetic groups -- which are then replaced in a manner which does not reflect the original composition of a region. Hence there are clear limitations to studies of existing populations.

Monday, July 20, 2009

Indian Eclipse

IS THIS TRUE: "The probability for unrest or war to take place in years when a solar eclipse happens is 95 percent,"?????????????

Wednesday, July 15, 2009

R1b, R1a, Megaliths & other thoughts

Shawn Sinclair [Sinclair Open Forum] asked me a question about the interaction of R1b and R1a in terms of Megalitic construction. Being a bit of a windbag, I started on a long response of train-of-thought free associative typing-thinking-typing. The next three paragraphs represent that train:

“Megalithic construct is intensive in R1b regions. That would indicate the moving of stone and basic stonework would fall to them. The use of the stones for astrological purposes and the recording of those findings seem to belong to R1a.

“Obviously they had to travel together -- but the ancient DNA evidence isn't available to prove the extent of that travel. The work force issue also comes into play ... The Atlantic had the R1b work force ... but so did the Egyptians -- once the Pharaoh was sold on the idea of massive stone construction. Getting it down to the U106 level where a master engineer would travel with a couple of apprentices seems to be indicated. These would be accompanied by -- or would accompany -- a group with mathematical knowledge.

“We actually need more archaeologists interested in both astronomy and DNA -- the DNA focus seems like it will develop naturally, but the astronomy needs software ... something like google earth ... but with the ability to reveal cycles and alignments from a given latitude and longitude. Funny part ... with such software anything which is astrological in nature could be dated to the exact year the layout was designed -- and it could be done immediately in the field so that sated layers could be placed in an evidence of use context.”

In terms of DNA Spread Theory, the availability of the internet – and services like Google Earth – offer a real opportunity for us to understand the intellectual development of humanity. The above is obvious. But there is another aspect to be addressed – those who are opposed to education and the acquisition & preservation of knowledge. I’m going to pick on one group – granted we could point to the Taliban and Islamic groups who deny half their population an education, and so deny their culture the ability to peacefully prosper through the full utilization of intellectual resources. But I’m a westerner – so THE BOOK which the Islamics are supposed to revere is the heart of my tradition; and not one step removed – as it is from those whose Prophet mandated his followers be the soldiers and protectors of The Book and its people. I also happen to be one of “The People of The Book,” so have a personal interest in the obvious mutiny and disrespect for The Prophet displayed by the Taliban, Al Qaeda and so many Palestinian groups. That said ...

Those who use the Bible to justify ignorance should be made to recall the assignments of the tribes. One tribe was specifically assigned the responsibility to study and learn. To ensure that they would be able to do so, another tribe was assigned the obligation to support (and protect) the academics by providing all their earthly needs.

All too often we give inordinate amounts of space to those who challenge the evidence of this world and declare it false – declare it a lie – in effect, declare that the academic tribe was commanded to study a lie. Obviously, I’m referring to the Creationist ideology which is, and has for centuries, been no better than the Taliban or Al Qaeda. If there is the Hell of their beliefs, than those who align with such groups will enjoy spending eternity in each others company.

OK ... doing it again ... train-of-thought free associative typing. However, if you believe I’m being harsh toward American Right-Wing fundamentalists, I would point to a test I often cite in my newspaper column and editorials – When judging the overall morality of a position, ask which side proposes inflicting “The Most Harm to the Most People”? Example, Bush attacked Iraq killing tens of thousands of innocents, while publically declaring Al Qaeda and Ben Laden irrelevant in his “War on Terror” – followed by plunging America into the worst recession since the Great Depression. (FULL DISCLOSURE: In an October 2000 newspaper column, I invited those who wanted to destroy America to vote for Bush – specifically because I wanted to see if he would be a disastrous a president as I was projecting.) A second example: Universal medical care. We now spend twice, per capita, what every other industrialized nation spend on medical care – with worse results. If we copied their “socialized medicine” programs, we would cover the twice the number of people without any increase in total expenditures – a simple mathematical reality. We would also have a healthier, thus more productive, work force – which infers a larger economy and lower over all taxes to achieve the same cash infusion to government programs. “The Most Harm to the Most People” test mandates that Republicans Right-wing fundamentalists, like their Islamic Taliban kin, will oppose anything which suggests an overall benefit to society.

DNA Spread Theory linked to astronomy and typed human (or domesticated animal) remains would indicate who may have been responsible for laying the foundations of human knowledge. At the same time, we should make it a point to dispel our own invented myth about what people knew, and when they knew it. In that regard, The myth created by Washington Irving comes to mind: The idea that people, mostly Christians, believed the world was flat – it doesn’t hold water. We know the early Church relied heavily on Greek teaching; the Greeks had been working on determining the circumference of the earth for at least two hundred years before Christ ... and Church scribes made it a point to save that work. "How the Irish Saved History" is a book which focuses on Irish Monks in the Dark Ages, and their efforts to preserve for future generations that which had already been preserved for over a thousand years.

Nice thing about blogging ... one need not stay on topic ... only stay close to it ;-D

Tuesday, July 14, 2009

What's in a Name? (Especially when the DNA don't match)

This has been an active few days – active enough to allow me to justify my normal book writing procrastination.

Let’s take on the guise of Dr. Watson – recalling “The Case of the Ergolding DNA”. Obviously, with regard to that matter, we have gone about as far as published research will allow. From here on out it would be all speculation. What we really need is some ancient DNA from England – as they say, The More The Merrier. Ideally from 52 degrees north latitude and all from the period prior to the Norman Conquest.

Why 52 North? Because that happens to be a Megalithic zone and connecting DNA to astro-archaeology is always fun – check what they did with the Goseck Circle and the R1a family from Eulau Germany. But I digress. Our objective would be to establish the period of R1b occupation in the region connected to the Bavarian R1b soldiers. As we lack any of the information we need, let’s head North to Scotland and turn our attention to something which popped up on our R1a1 Yahoo Group.

In the best Holmesian (?is that a word?) we’ll call this: The Case of the Gillespie with MacDonald DNA.

Clan MacDonald, or Clan Donald, are generally R1a1. Those in the region who carry the surname Gillespie are inclined to be R1b. Sop why do we have a Scots Gillespie who is R1a1?

My first inclination was the infamous Non-Parental Event (NPE) – usually taken to be a wife was cheating or a child unrecognized by its father. Naturally, it can also indicate something else I have first hand knowledge of – an adoption. These three things are the first to come to mind when a DNA mismatch indicates someone doesn’t belong where the records seem to indicate the do. But there is a reality to be dealt with – surnames cannot be trusted.

For me, seeing the name Gillespie did not generate the spark of recognition which screams SCOTLAND! Rather, it said Italian. But an Italian which could be traced to periods prior to Italy formally adopting generalized surname use? Added to which, the researcher would have mentioned an Italian population or connection. NO! This was pure Scottish.

OK. I went for the NPE – but being me, I didn’t believe me. I never believe me. I never believe me to such a degree that I taught my kids never to believe me – whenever they asked a question, I would give them the answer; then tell them to go into our library and look on a certain shelf to find the book that had the answer. Just to see if I was right. More important – to always do that (regardless of the initial source). It comes from being raised by a lawyer – who both knew the law and knew enough to check his knowledge and facts before arguing them before a judge.

In any event – I Googled GILLESPIE SCOTLAND and discovered a page on the origins of the Gillespie surname. Turns out it is derived from the term for a clerical scribe, or Bishop’s Lawyer. In the best of surname tradition, the name was an occupation, or title, which apparently was imposed one its bearer – or the bearers son – when either the English or Scots adopted surnames. It might also have been the designation in a Census, or simply – as with a Smith, Tailor, or Miller – the way, in terms of primary trade or occupation, the family was designated. And yes! It would be interesting to see how Gillespie became associated with Italian naming tradition (either as a first or last name) – could it be that they took the name from the Scots who went to the Papal Court? OK! That’s more speculation.

DNA SPREAD THEORY REQUIRES that all possible explanations be applied – ideally using Occam’s Razor: The simplest explanation is generally the most accurate one. But, as we are dealing with people, add to that the idea that the moral assumption is also probably the most accurate one – for the simple reason that all cultures and traditions tend to embody a moral warning to their people act in their personal self interest and treat others as they would, themselves, wish to be treated.

Monday, July 13, 2009

More Spread Theory Analysis for Ergolding Remains

Here's an interesting image of geography associated with the Ergolding remains. They were out of place in Bavaria, but would have been right at home in middle England ... in fact, the six point haplotype match appears as a straight line. (the out of place pin is Stonehenge, the heaviest consentration of monoloithic construction is in haplotype regions.)

Spread theory raises questions of historic association between a regional haplotype -- in this case, R1b -- and events or technology usage.

the following graphic shows a simple anaylsis based upon the haplogroups in which thegolding haplotype can be found and the history (available by Anglo-Saxon related headings on Wikipedia). Obviously a more in depth analysis would be necessary -- along with other research on a peer-review level.

Isotopic analysis of the Ergolding knights would be very important -- it could establish they were Saxon-Brits in the service of a Byzantine Dynasty.

The following is the overall database findings:

Note the Jewish elements -- Kurdish Iberian Sephardic and Ashkenazi.
In first centuries, to be Christian -- following teachings of Peter -- was to be Jewish first. We therefore have an interesting Spread Theory (Chiken and Egg style) Question: How did a segment of non-Middle Eastern DNA from Saxony-England become Jewish. Specifically, Kurdish and Sephardic -- it is known that Sephardic Jewish moved to Galicia Austria after the Spanish Inquisition evicted them from Spain in 1492 ... they also moved to Turkey.

Actually, that set of facts basically explains/answers the problem ... Spain/Iberia is associated with R1b. So Iberian/Sephardic would be a natural fit for a Peter style Jewish-Christian whose line remained Jewish. This also raises a question for another blog -- concerning Sephardi-Jewish origins

Saturday, July 11, 2009

Ergolding (Bavaria, Germany c.670 CE)

DNA Spread Theory Analysis & Ergolding Cemetery DNA (dated 670 CE)
Based upon forensic research analysis as published in report entitled:
"Kinship and Y-Chromosome Analysis of 7th Century Human Remains: Novel DNA Extraction and Typing Procedure for Ancient Material"

Daniel Vanek, Lenka Saskova, Hubert Koch – Forensic DNA Service, Prague, Czech Republic – Bavarian State Department of Monuments and Sights, Regensburg, Germany

FORENSIC SCIENCE doi: 10.3325/cmj.2009.50.286

I've added data from one of the SINCLAIR Group Panels as comparison. It is noted that the tested data from the panel does not fully correspond to the tests performed by Vanek et al. However, for the purposes of current DNA Spread Theory analysis, a full sequence is not necessary. Early DNA based research papers – as published – focus on a limited number of loci. The 3,000 plus Haplotypes comprising my Database utilize these six loci: DYS19, DYS388, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393. It is noted that – should researches continue their current trend of expanded reporting – future analysis will also utilize DYS389a,b and DYS385a,b.

In an ideal world, techniques will evolve to the point where remains can be tested for the full spectrum of NRY loci. As the title of the paper utilized here indicates, the necessary extraction techniques are still being developed and tested.

Looking to our first chart – locations of modern DNA groups common to both haplotypes_14_12_23_10_13_13 and _14_12_23_11_13_13. PDF: 5258 Nicholas II Royal Family shows _14_(-)_24_10_13_13 which is possible match to body 244D and indicates the possibility Czar Nicolas was related to the knights of Ergolding.

The period under Spread Theory examination is 670 CE – the Austrasia region of the Frankish Empire. In this period, the Franks were responsible for the protection of the Pope and therefore it would be natural for officers and knights (possible nobility) to be Franks. The DNA tells us they were Anglo-Saxon knights connected to Friesland. The population concentration in Britain indicates an early arrival date – in a position of power.

Following Spread Theory, we see from the next chart that one line became established in Norway and both lines became well established in the regions below the Black Sea. This would infer that the line engaged in the Crusades and remained within the region. The fact that there is also a clear Jewish connection associate with haplotype _14_12_23_10_13_13 indicates a possible early conversion – hypothetically concurrent with the Kazar conversion of the 8th century and probably following the same logic. The convert or family members – thus the Iberian line – would have moved to Spain. In 1492, the Jews were evicted from Spain and many went to the Ashkenazi community – which would explain that connection. Of course, there is need of specific family identification and genealogy. Ascent that, the expanded markers mentioned above would serve to strengthen, or fill-in, the spread pattern.

We should note that one significant test was missing in the examination of the Ergolding remains. As that test was outside the research parameters, this is not a criticism. It would have been helpful for future research to have the tested remains examined isotopically. Isotopes within the teeth and bone could establish where the knights were born and/or raised. With that knowledge, it would be possible to create an historically based hypothesis as to the events and role which brought them to be where they died.

Myth & spread theory

Myth & spread theory

DNA Spread Theory incorporates mythology as being indicative of a specific DNA related population at a specific point in their cultural evolution.

The Myths which resonate with unrelated populations will be adopted – either by direct copy, or translation and integration with the indigenous mythology. The basic elements of mythical explaination are consistent.

Note: This is the same process which is applied to the spread of language. It is the nature of spread theory to seek and apply a uniform conceptual process. The controlling rule is codified by the expression: “It’s all the same, just change the name.” (If applied to math or physics – as illustrated by the formulas for the orbit of an electron around its nucleus; the orbit of a planet around its sun; the orbit of solar systems within their galaxy – “It’s all the same, just change the name and order of magnitude of the related constant.” )

In terms of mythology, all stories are composed of twin elemets: 1. The symbolic or generalized element, and 2. The factual, or historic, characteristic.

An example from 20th century America would be comic book characters of SUPERMAN and BATMAN. If we consider comics as short mythologies, we see two common Classic Mythological beings in an allegorical setting.

SUPERMAN, the humanoid alien, represents the classic Greek divinity – generally all powerful, but with a fatal flaw which allows for weakness and death.

BATMAN, the heroic human, represents the classic Homeric Hero – totally human but with the backing of wealth, and devoted to achieving the necessary physical and mental discipline needed to combat the opposition.

Both figures reside in symbolic steel and concrete high-rise cities (Gotham and Metropolis – whose names are simply variation on large city).

When dealing with mythological elements, an important factor in the analysis is the actual meaning of the names, in the context of the original language and era, which the author applied to the characters. If you do not know the meaning of the name, critical elements of the story are lost. As a rule, the mythic name describes the established characteristic of the individual. While, in Myth, the name is given at birth, traditionally, people had multiple names – one with which they were addressed within the family, and others which they acquired during their lifetimes.

An example of naming practice can be seen with the American President Barack Obama. He has his birth name, but, for a time, was called by the nickname Barry; then, as a respected adult, it was Mr. Obama; and – as of January 2009 – it became Mr. President. Because we are living as the events occur, we do not think in terms of name changes as they might appear in ancient texts.

We do not think of the various names we each have carried, but which reveal who we are at various points in our lifetimes – hence, in terms of Spread Theory, how we would appear in historic records. In mythic terms, consider the name Moses – “drawn from the water”. It describes the infant and replaces any actual name. Christians speak of Christ – which simply means “anointed one” – a name bestowed on mutiple individuals in the time period, but which was eventually attached to a mythic symbolic figure whose characteristics emulate the existing deity of the cultures which adopted him. More accurately, an individual who, like Moses, was given the characteristics which were required when designating either a divinity, an originating leader.

All Mythology follows a formula construction which includes necessary descriptive elements – it is the elements which define the originating culture and DNA population. (For comparisons on Moses and Christ investigate the figures who were cast into, or draw from, water after a prophecy warns a ruler of the birth of a child who will supplant them. Look too to the Herculean Mythologies, the claim of the Egyptian Queen-Pharaoh Hatshepsut as the direct daughter of the Sun God (who visited her mother while the Pharaoh was away), Romulus & Remus, etc. Also examine the Cain & Able mythology in terms of Romulus and Remus, or, in general, the founding of ancient cities and cultures. The elements are shuffled to fit the times and needs of the people, but they are still the same "unchanged" generic mythologies.

Sunday, June 28, 2009

Biblical timeline

The biblical generations are discussed and played with -- but who ever really looks at them?

Here's your chance.

NOTE the goodies. There is a two year error at the time of the "Flood" or "deluge." I've named it the SHEM ERROR and everything indicates it was an intentional adjustment. We've seen them before -- isn't that how "April's Fool" came about?

The ancients knew what they were doing, and their calendars were accurate -- within reason. So far as DNA Spread Theory is concerned -- that accuracy is attributable to a group of nomads belonging to Haplogroup line R-M17.

Friday, June 26, 2009

Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA)

the following TMRCA periods are based upon research done by Anatole A. Klyosov and published in
"Nature Proceedings : hdl:10101/npre.2008.2733.1 : Posted 29 Dec 2008 ARTICLES
"DNA Genealogy, Mutation Rates, and Some Historical Evidences Written in Y-Chromosome, Anatole A. Klyosov DNA Genealogy, Mutation Rates, and Some Historical Evidences Written in Y-Chromosome, Anatole A. Klyosov"

Native Americans Q (16,000ybp)

oldest Balkan R1a1 population (11,600ybp),

Arabian CMH J1 (9,000ybp),

near thirty of European countries R1a1 (4,825ybp),

near thirty of European countries R1a1 (4,100ybp),

Basques R1b1b2 (4,050ybp),

Cohen Modal Haplotype (CMH) J1 (4,000ybp),

Arabian Peninsula R1a1 (3,750ybp),

India R1a1 (3,675ybp),

South India Chenchu R1a1 (3,200ybp),

Cohen Modal Haplotype (CMH) J2 (1,400ybp)

Croatian Gypsies H1 (1,125ybp),

Cohen Modal Haplotype (CMH) J1 (1,050ybp)

Polynesians C2 (800ybp),

South African Lemba (625ybp),

Bulgarian Gypsies H1 (575ybp),

South India Chenchu R1a1 (350ybp).

Other regionally specific TMRCA data will be added as found -- feel free to post names of relevant papers.

Ennad Structure

Egyptian Ennad -- deities -- were nine and then became twelve
As revealed by DNA Spread Theory (as it relates to the mythology associated with a specific pair of Haplogroups, one of which is now defined by a specific Haplotype), this structure can be found defined in the Book of Genesis. Basically, it forms the framework for the structure of Genesis for the period from 3161 BCE to 1308 BCE.

Look at the illustration of Orsis, Maut and the nine sub-deities.
First: You have the primary character on a throne -- he doesn't count, he oversees all.
Second: You have Maut, justice, the scales upon which the sins added to the soul are compared to the weight of a feather. If the scale tilts, the soul is lost. This is the event.
Third: The nine deities of the Ennead. Later in Egyptian history these became twelve deities. (Think astronomy, planets, months, calendars. And don't forget the guys who made astrological circles possile -- who became, or gave birth to, the Chaldeans and Magi.)

The pattern is Event followed by NINE entities. Event followed by NINE entities plus conversion event followed by three entities for a total of TWELVE. The conversion event corresponds to the Egyptian Twelfth Dynasty -- or age of the HYKSOS (Shepherd Kings of Asia)

According to Josephus, the first century Jewish Historian, EBER is the origin of Hebrew and those who followed him are known as such (see Death order chart: After the defining transitional act in which Ishmael is Circumcised, ISAAC is first Hebrew.) Moses and the Exodus are the termination of the Ennad which, in Egypt, was marked by the monotheistic Armana Period.

Monday, June 15, 2009

Manifestations of Spread Theory

Manifestations of Spread Theory

In 1991,the 5300 year old Ötzi the Iceman was discovered in the Austrian Alps, 1991. It was over a decade before maternal DNA was done – there are no reports of recoverable paternal DNA. Otzi’s mother was Haplogroup K. Today, haplogroup K has a frequency of around 6% in Europe. [6][7]

Haplogroup K was also found at Eulau, where the researchers “conclude that the multiple occurrences of haplogroup X2 and K1b in the Eulau burials can be interpreted as biological relationship rather than occurring by chance.” [8]

In his studies of the maternal ancestry of Ashkenazi Jews, Doron M. Behar found haplogroup K to be present in 32% of the Ashkenazi test subjects with indications of descent from four individuals. In the context of this article, Behar et al put forth these Spread Theory questions: “There are two fundamental questions with respect to the geographic origin of the Ashkenazi founding lineages. First, were these lineages a part of the mtDNA pool of a population ancestral to Ashkenazi Jews in the Near East, or were they established within the Ashkenazi Jews later in Europe, as a result of introgression from European or Eurasian groups? Second, where did these lineages expand? [9]

One of the techniques which can answer Spread Theory question, in the context of ancient remains, can be seen in the a report which appeared in National Geographic Magazine (July 2007): “Using a sophisticated analysis of isotopes in one of the Iceman's teeth, for example, scientists led by Wolfgang Muller (now at the Royal Holloway, University of London) have shown that he probably grew up in the Valle Isarco, an extensive north-south valley that includes the modern-day town of Bressanone. Isotope levels in his bones, meanwhile, match those in the soil and water of two alpine valleys farther west, the Val Senales and the Val Venosta.”

Using a related Isotopic technique, the July/August 2009 issue of Archaeology (page 10) has reported the finding that one of the 1493/4 Columbus crew was African. In yet another example of the work being done to ustilize DNA techniques to document human migrations, the article goes on to state, “Researchers plan to use the data to link other remains to their hometowns in Spain.”

DNA Spread Theory

DNA Spread Theory
by Bill Lipton

"The vanquished always want to imitate the victor in his distinctive mark, his dress, his occupation, and his other conditions and customs." - A 14th century scholar, Ibn Khaldun[1]

To state the obvious: Every population can be defined by its DNA. As discussed below, the study of ancient populations has had to refer to artifacts as opposed to population groups. It is only since December 2008 - with PNAS publication of genetic findings from a family grave, from Eulau Germany, dating to 2600 BCE [2]- that specific DNA has been linked to a specific archaeological site ... the Goseck stone circle. Effectively, for the first time, a family, sharing common DNA, has been linked to a Stonehenge like structure. In recent articles, the Eulau Germany family has also been associated with the Nebra Sky Disk (dated to 1600 BCE).

To date, no name or designation has been given to studies linking specific DNA with specific archaeological sites, languages and mythologies. As noted below, the only major project exploring human migration from the perspective of DNA is the National Geographic Genographic Project - with is due for completion in 2010. Those who have been approaching the subject from the perspective of DNA-genealogy have come to know this area of study, DNA Spread Theory. As the use of DNA - in archaeological context - it is possible that other designations will emerge, but for now, the link is being made in terms of DNA Spread Theory.

Prior to the advent of economical gender DNA testing – with its application to Genealogy and affirmation of George Darwin’s postulation of a link between surnames and genetics – there was no objective means of connecting the evolution of culture to specific populations. In archaeology, the trend was to use technologically unique artifacts to identify a cultural group. An example is found in the Corded Ware Culture – identified by coiled clay pottery designs – where a clan or tribal technological design is utilized to describe what is either a single population, or an amalgam of diverse groups.

Theoretical & Archaeological Roots
‘Path of the Serpent’ proposed a multi-disciplinary approach to cultural evolution based upon the (then recent) findings of Astronomer Gerald S. Hawkins – as expounded in his seminal work, ‘Stonehenge Decoded’[3] – taken in conjunction with archaeological evidence inferring Cro-magnon cultures considered the serpent to be a primal deity. In addition, Lipton had the examples set by Thor Heyerdahl – Kon-Tiki and the Ra Expedition – to provide demonstrative, and pragmatic, evidence for the feasibility of inter-continental cultural transfer as a means of explaining the universality of the Serpent Deity.

The conjecture underlying the work of Heyerdahl and numerous others – some of which gained popular notoriety, while related lines of thought languished for want of evidence – fell in a period marked by publication of such works as Erich von Däniken’s ‘Chariots of the Gods?: Unsolved Mysteries of the Past’. Drawing upon general post nuclear apocalyptic fears and an unpopular war sold as the possible first domino in the threatened Communist/Socialist takeover – building upon a sense of helplessness and New Age escapism – von Däniken was able to capitalize on a general feeling of human helplessness and incompetence in managing our own destiny; this was combined with a historic questioning of pre-Victorian intelligence which mandated that any ancient accomplishment not achievable by Her Majesty’s Royal Engineers must have been done by aliens.

Working Definition of DNA Spread Theory

The research report associated with the Eulau discovery - the first significant paper in this area of academic inquiry - provides us with the basis for a working definition of DNA Spread Theory: "A multidisciplinary synthesis of integrative studies associating detailed information about daily lives, social organization, and culture with with specific DNA Haplogroups and Haplotypes to obtain insight into their relationship to nuclear and/or extended family structures and marriage systems."
Historic Antecedents

Because it associates religion, legend, culture and DNA, DNA Spread Theory borders on theories of the type espoused by Arthur de Gobineau, whose 1850's Aryan Master race hypothesis – as put forth in ‘An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races’ – would eventually gave rise to Hitler, the Nazi and neo-Nazi movements. It is noteworthy that de Gobineau made his connections in terms of language and dominant cultures – as viewed in terms of Indo-Iranian and Indo-European cultural influences. This was the same period in which Darwin – who postulated Natural Selection in 1838, but didn’t publish ‘On the Origin of Species’ until 1859, or some five years after de Gobineau’s theory – was engaged in explaining the world through Natural Selection and what has been termed "Survival of the fittest." In their own way, both these views discussed a form of natural eugenics in which the unfit were unable to procreate, or otherwise ceased to exist.

However paradoxical, it should be noted that the Old Testament concept of a Chosen people serves as a fitting prelude to both Darwin and de Gobineau. Those familiar with the first five books – the Books of Moses – are also familiar with the various divine commands such as:

a) "Now therefore kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman that hath known man by lying with him." [4] Which effectively impose a divine policy of de Gobineau style eugenics on the per-Israelite promised land occupants; or
b) The marriage laws typified by "only to the family of the tribe of their father shall they marry." [5] Which effectively impose a restrictive Darwinian mating practice – ostensibly to control property rights, but having the practical effect of governing power and educational advantages in the same manner as the Indian Caste System

It would be remiss to ignore the full extent of Old & New Testament eugenics reflected by the application of pastoralist Animal husbandry to social order and structure. This becomes evident when we place the marriage restrictions in the context of rules governing a division of territory and allocation of profession based on genetic linederived from an assertion of descent from one of twelve specific individuals and the ‘blessing’ they received from a legendary common ancestor. Effectively, under conditions of strict enforcement, each territory would eventually contain a homogeneous genetic pool defined by geography and trade; in terms of husbandry, each line was being bred to fulfil a specific function within the specific geographic environment it occupied. A concept which, when expressed in these terms, is very controversial among certain segments of the population.
However, by recognizing this ultimate characteristic of the discussed text, and viewing the same effective result within other Caste or ‘class’ based social structures, Spread Theory allows its practitioners to find correlations between DNA and culture.

Proper application of DNA within the context of Spread Theory allows both the archaeologist and anthropologist to place there discoveries into a more universal context; thus illuminating our common origins and manner in which our continued interaction both diverges and coalesces -- based upon whether the nature of conquest, the means used to vanquish, was militaristic, technological, or philosophical.

Baseline Data

Haplogroup R1a distribution
Given the recent emergence of this field of study, the earliest papers reported results from only six viable loci – these are identified by DYS location as:


Of note is that more DYS values are generally reported – based on nature of study – but the six currently being utilized are more uniformly reported, and are reported with larger supporting data samples.

Focusing on research papers containing Indo-European Hg-R-M17 (R1a1), yielded seventeen papers with viable supporting tables (or Modal Haplogroup information) for a total of approximately 3000 individual haplogroup sets – these comprise the basic data currently being prepared/edited for publication. To this has been added comparative data from various individuals belonging to members of R1a1 Yahoo Forum where Lipton is a co-moderator

Modal Sample

Y-DNA-R1a Modal Haplotype Ysearch Alleles(repeats) at each DYS location:
DYS 19 388 390 391 392 393 future use 389I 389II 426
Eastern European 16 12 25 10 11 13 ..... .. .. ..

The foregoing illustration presents six elements of a Modal which, because it is not supported in the context of available peer-review research offers no tracking context. The following are derived from the research data. DNA Spread Theory is used, as the name implies, to trace where a given ancestral line has been and left a descendant record. A basic precept of Spread Theory is to utilize markers which are slow to mutate and therefore stable over extended periods of time - tentatively defined as units expressed in thousands of years. For that reason, only exact-match haplotypes are used. The following chart illustrates a sequence variously[6][7][8] defined as an Ashkenazi Microsatellite or Founder Modal and Central Asian Modal.

Spread Theory as illustrated using proposed Ashkenazim Founder Modal:

DYS 19 388 390 391 392 393 future use 389I 389II 426
16 12 25 11 10 13 ..... .. .. ..Levite Founder
16 12 25 11 10 13 ..... .. .. ..Kirghiz(Cent-Asia)
16 12 25 11 10 13 ..... .. .. ..Indian - Kashmiri
16 12 25 11 10 13 ..... .. .. ..Anatolia
16 12 25 11 10 13 ..... .. .. ..Kurd
16 12 25 11 10 13 ..... .. .. ..Iran
16 12 25 11 10 13 ..... .. .. ..Parsi
16 12 25 11 10 13 ..... .. .. ..Anglo-Saxon(Ashbourne)
16 12 25 11 10 13 ..... .. .. ..Sorb
16 12 25 11 10 13 ..... .. .. ..Belarus
16 12 25 11 10 13 ..... .. .. ..Norway
16 12 25 11 10 13 ..... .. .. ..Tristan da Cunha

Population by Dominant DNA

Utilizing the same Modal - though different examples where the specific locale was provided - we are able to see a migration path which lends itself to being mapped. Here the data is presented tabulated by Latitude(left) and Sort by:

by Longitude:
Latitude Longitude Location
37.31N 38.74E Anatolia(Urfa)
40.99N 29.10E Anatolia(Istanbul)
41.00N 44.40E Armenian(North)
45.10N 15.20E Croatian
50.40N 10.40E German
51.18N 11.85E Eulau(Ger)
53.71N 27.90E Belarus

by Latitude:
Latitude Longitude Location
44.40E 41.00N Armenian(North)
38.74E 37.31N Anatolia(Urfa)
29.10E 40.99N Anatolia(Istanbul)
27.90E 53.71N Belarus
15.20E 45.10N Croatian
11.85E 51.18N Eulau(Ger)
10.40E 50.40N German

Given an origin point for the specific haplotype, as seen above, the migratory path of the genetic line can be determined. As more and more archaeologists avail themselves of the ability to perform DNA testing on remains, the accuracy of the migratory path - and the root relationships of the DNA to the culture which dominated the geographic - will be revealed. An example of this was recently provided by the 4600 year old family remains exhumed in Eulau Germany[9] with their connection to the Corded Ware Culture and Goseck circle.


Goseck circle. The yellow lines represent the direction the Sun rises and sets at the winter solstice, while the vertical line shows the astronomical meridian - as pointed out by Gerald Hawkins, there is only one latitude where these lines would be 90 degrees apart, and that is where the Eulau family chose to reside.

[ILLUSTRATION: Plan of Stonehenge in 2004. After Cleal et al. and Pitts. Trilithon lintels omitted for clarity. Stonehenge is located at 51.18N latitude - see comment on Goseck Circle for signifigance.]

In astronomical terms, Goseck Circle is as unique as Stonehenge. That an R-M17 family is associated with it - in 2600BCE [39], the period of Stonehenge and Great Pyramid - serves as a significant indication of the importance which will befall DNA Spread Theory in the years ahead. It might not be too much to suggest it will take on an archaeological or historical significance comparable to Darwinian Evolution in Biology.

Researchers (Haak et al) described the find with these words: "Synthesis of Integrative Studies. This multidisciplinary study has revealed detailed information about the daily lives, the social organization, and the death of a Stone Age community in Central Europe 4,600-years ago. By a combination of methods, we are able to gain a detailed insight into parent-offspring relations (nuclear families) and possibly the association of related generations (extended families), as well as the marriage system (exogamy)." [40]

As an example of how this find comports with the above chart, it is noted that the haplotypes were incomplete, but consistent with, 16/12/25/11/(?)/(13).[41][42] The degraded DYS392, in the presence of reported values at DYS389I/456/458/439/Y-GATA indicate future applications of DNA Spread Theory might need to incorporate one or more of those sites.

[ILLUSTRATION: Plan of the central stone structure today. After Johnson 2008]

An interesting curiosity is seen by where Eulau falls in the migration chart. As the research is new and ongoing, observations of similarities are being used here in expectation of replacement by findings - such as those at Eulau - being published in peer-review journals.

Reference Research
^ Ibn Khaldun, quoted by Patai, Raphael, The Arab Mind, rev. ed., Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1983, 20
^ Ancient DNA, Strontium isotopes, and osteological analyses shed light on social and kinship organization of the Later Stone Age, Wolfgang Haak et al, PNAS. US, on-line before print, 10.1073/pnas.0807592105, November 17, 2008
^ ’Stonehenge Decoded’, Gerald S Hawkins in collaboration with John B. White, Doubleday & Co, 1965
^ Numbers 31:17
^ Numbers 36:6
^ Multiple Origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y Chromosome Evidence for Both Near Eastern and European Ancestries
^ Y chromosome evidence for a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews
^ Sex-Specific Migration Patterns in Central Asian Populations, Revealed by Analysis of Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats and mtDNA
^ 18226–18231 ?PNAS November 25, 2008 vol.105 no.47, Ancient DNA, Strontium isotopes, and osteological analyses shed light on social and kinship organization of the Later Stone Age, Wolfgang Haak et al
^ Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69:1095–1112, 2001, Almut Nebel et al, The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East
^ Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66:674–686, 2000, Mark G. Thomas et al, Y Chromosomes Traveling South: The Cohen Modal Haplotype and the Origins of the Lemba - the "Black Jews of Southern Africa"
^ Am. J. Hum. Genet. 73:000–000, 2003, Doron M. Behar et al, Multiple Origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y Chromosome Evidence for Both Near Eastern and European Ancestries
^ Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72:313–332, 2003, T. Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations
^ Hum Genet (2004) 114 : 127–148, DOI 10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4, Cengiz Cinniog?lu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia
^ Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70:1107–1124, 2002, Raheel Qamar et al, Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in Pakistan
^ Indian Academy of Sciences, Journal of Genetics, Vol. 80, No. 3, December 2001, NAMITA MUKHERJEE et al, resolution analysis of Y chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India
^ Am. J. Hum. Genet. 73:524–539, 2003, Maria-Catira Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas
^ Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69:1314–1331, 2001, David Gresham et al, Origins and Divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)
^ Mol. Biol. Evol. 19(7):1008–1021. 2002, Accepted January 25, 2002, Michael E. Weale, et al, Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration
^ Hum Genet (2000) 107 :630–641, DOI 10.1007/s004390000426, Almut Nebel et al, High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews
^ Elena Bosch Fuste, Barcelona, febrer del 2000, ISBN:84-688-2285-X, Diversitat genomica a les poblacions del nord d'Africa
^ Hum Genet (2001) 109 :659–674, DOI 10.1007/s00439-001-0627-9, Michael E. Weale et al, Armenian Y chromosome haplotypes reveal strong regional structure within a single ethno-national group
^ Journal of Genetic Genealogy. 3(2):26-46, 2007, Steven C. Bird, Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin
^ European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 705–709,, Himla Soodyall et al, Genealogy and genes: tracing the founding fathers of Tristan da Cunha
^ Forensic Science International 138 (2003) 127–133, Lovorka Barac et al, Y chromosome STRs in Croatians
^ Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74:000–000, 2004, Lev A. Zhivotovsky et al, The Effective Mutation Rate at Y Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats, with Application to Human Population-Divergence Time
^ Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65:208–219, 1999, Anna Pe´rez-Lezaun et al, Sex-Specific Migration Patterns in Central Asian Populations, Revealed by Analysis of Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats and mtDNA
^ DNA Consulting, 2003-2006,Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA
^ Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68:432–443, 2001, Cristian Capelli et al
^ Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65:1623–1638, 1999, Elena Bosch et al
^ European Journal of Human Genetics (2005) 13, 388–391, Almut Nebel et al, Published online 3 November 2004
^ Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70:1594–1596, 2002, ALMUT NEBEL et al
^ Mol. Biol. Evol. 21(1):164–175. 2004, DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msh009, Stephen L. Zegura et al
^ Current Biology, Vol. 13, 979–984, May 27, 2003, ?2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. DOI 10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00373-7, Cristian Capelli et al
^ Forensic Science Journal 2003; Vol. 2, No. 1 (2:69-76), Hsing-Mei Hsieh et al
^ to be added
^ to be added
^ to be added
^ Ancient DNA, Strontium isotopes, and osteological analyses shed light on social and kinship organization of the Later Stone Age, Wolfgang Haak et al, PNAS, November 25, 2008, vol. 105, no. 47, 18229
^ ibid, Wolfgang Haak et al, PNAS, November 25, 2008, vol. 105, no. 47, 18229
^ Supporting Information, Haak et al. 10.1073/pnas.0807592105
^ The results were described in a slightly different manner: "These results are supported by the very recent data on excavation of R1a (SNP SRY10831.2) and presumably R1a1 haplotypes near Eulau, Germany. The 4,600 old haplotypes follow with dating performed using strontium isotope analysis: 13(14)-25-16-11-11-14-X-Y-10-13-Z-30-15 These very closely resemble the above R1a1 ancestral haplotype in Germany both in the structure and in the dating (4,700 and 4,600 ybp)." DNA Genealogy, Mutation Rates, and Some Historical Evidences Written in Y-Chromosome, Anatole A. Klyosov, Nature Precedings : hdl:10101/npre.2008.2733.1 : Posted 29 Dec 2008
Full Disclosure Statement[43]
^ For four months September 2, 2007 (when Anatole contacted him), and for about four months thereafter, the initial author of this article and Anatole A. Klyosov -- author of the article cited as second reference in Eulau DNA sequence appearing in Nature Precedings:hdl:10101/npre.2008.2733.1:Posted 29 Dec 2008 -- were informal research associates discussing a collaborative work for Willey & Sons. Lipton introduced Klyosov to the Chenchu connection, and Klyosov introduced Lipton to the finds at Arkaim stone circles. Anatole Alex KLYOSOV is a chemist, biochemist and genetic researcher.

Reference papers utilized for initial analysis
1. The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East[10]
2. Y Chromosomes Traveling South: The Cohen Modal Haplotype and the Origins of the Lemba - the "Black Jews of Southern Africa [11]
3. Multiple Origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y Chromosome Evidence for Both Near Eastern and European Ancestries[12]
4. The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations[13]
5. Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia[14]
6. Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in Pakistan[15]
7. High resolution analysis of Y chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India [16]
8. Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas [17]
9. Origins and Divergence of the Roma (Gypsies) [18]
10. Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration [19]
11. High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews [20]
12. Diversitat genomica a les poblacions del nord d'Africa [21]
13. Armenian Y chromosome haplotypes reveal strong regional structure within a single ethno-national group [22]
14. Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin [23]
15. Genealogy and genes: tracing the founding fathers of Tristan da Cunha [24]
16. Y chromosome STRs in Croatians [25]
17. The Effective Mutation Rate at Y Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats, with Application to Human Population-Divergence Time [26]
18. Sex-Specific Migration Patterns in Central Asian Populations, Revealed by Analysis of Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats and mtDNA [27]
Additional Relevant Sources
A. Conversion Table for Y-Chromosome Haplogroups (available online)[28]
B. A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian- Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania[29]
C. Variation in Short Tandem Repeats Is Deeply Structured by Genetic Background on the Human Y Chromosome [30]
D. Y chromosome evidence for a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews[31]
E. Genetic Evidence for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes into the Southern Levant and North Africa (Letters to the Editor - ALMUT NEBEL et al) [32]
F. High-Resolution SNPs and Microsatellite Haplotypes Point to a Single, Recent Entry of Native American Y Chromosomes into the Americas [33]
G. A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles[34]
H. Screening of Y-chromosome STR Loci in Taiwanese Populations[35]
to be added[36]
to be added[37]
to be added[38]